maladaptation climate change examples

Climatic Change 93: 335-354. Please see Chapter 5 of the EEA report Urban adaptation in Europe: how cities and towns respond to climate change for further information. Managing the risk of uncertain thresholds responses: comparison of robust, optimum, and precautionary approaches. This principle aims to avoid the confusion – still very common on the ground – between adaptation and mitigation (e.g. 8Although the issue of maladaptation is of growing concern, surprisingly few frameworks exist that help better understand and identify the risks and forms of maladaptation. “These strategies yield benefits even in the absence of climate change” (p.244). Jorgensen (2009). Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. Dupuis, J. Alley, R.B., J. Marotzke, W.D. When developing initiatives, there is thus a strong temptation to wait for science (of climate impacts and vulnerability) to provide more precise information. Parry, M.L., O.F. The five principles of the Pathways framework, 1. Ensure that the initiative does not increase emissions of greenhouse gases. The author also thanks the three anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and advice. Section 2 addresses the concept of maladaptation to climate change and presents some existing frameworks used to capture maladaptation. Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use in the United States. 9The Pathways framework is based on the work of Barnett and O’Neill (2010) on two engineering responses3 to water stress in Melbourne, Australia. The challenge of enhancing objectivity is crucial for at least two reasons: first, to assess to what extent (mal)adaptation is happening on the ground; and secondly, because of the need to provide funding bodies and practitioners with common references, i.e. in spatial planning), which is in line with the “First, do no harm” principle developed in the late 19th century in the medical field (Smith, 2005). a legal obligation for stakeholders to feed the downstream coast with additional sand, or to use groynes equipped with a by-pass system). Such an ex ante approach, however, supposes to get a clearer understanding of what maladaptation is. 23The options available to socio-ecological systems facing natural or anthropogenic disturbances will of course also depend on human characteristics, specifically those related to the environment (beliefs, risk perceptions, traditional uses of natural resources, etc.). As the need for climate change adaptation has been widely recognised, examples of successful adaptation are increasingly reported in the literature (Moser and Boykoff 2013).The empirical literature has focused on barriers to implementation (Biesbroek et al. Heltberg, R., P.B. Like the previous guideline, this one also raises the importance of enhancing people’s self-confidence in their ability to drive the change, which is consistent with principle 4 of the Pathways framework. “The uncertainty regarding future climate conditions increases rapidly with time. “Adaptation strategies often have side effects that can be either negative or positive. We named this approach the, according to words used by the authors themselves. 7 Essentially, definition (1) considers maladaptation as a pathway, limits it to the detrimental effects of an adaptation initiative on the system’s vulnerability to climate variability and change, links it to the necessity for flexibility in order to face current and future climate-related extreme events and gradual environmental changes, and emphasizes its multi-temporal nature. in the socio-ecological system in which the initiative is implemented (direct environment). Groves, S.W. Very recently, the IPCC Working Group II contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5-WGII) (Field et al., 2014) contains numerous references to the concept, including a one-page section dedicated to ‘Addressing Maladaptation’ (Noble et al., 2014). When developing initiatives, there is thus a strong temptation to wait for science (of climate impacts and vulnerability) to provide more precise information. In: Field C. et al. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Three main guidelines apply here: 246—Start from local social characteristics and cultural values that could have an influence on risks and environmental dynamics. the role of ecosystems, risk perception by local communities, . Section 4 draws general conclusions regarding the overarching benefit of this work and suggests directions for future research. Hallegatte gives the example of limiting leakage in a water distribution network. This principle is consistent with principle 5 of the Pathways framework and principle 3 of the Precautionary framework, respectively. While climate change adaptation research in the Nordic context has advanced significantly in recent years (Klein and Juhola, 2014), less work has been done on the risk of maladaptation, that is, the unintended negative consequences of adaptation policies and measures (Adger et al., 2009, Dow et al., 2013, Juhola et al., 2016, Magnan et al., 2016). Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 20: 211–213. Scheraga, J.D. Set the primary purpose as being to promote adaptation to climate-related changes rather than to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Coastal dunes are one example, as they act as a buffer against storm surges when in good condition (continuity of the dune belt and presence of dune-binding vegetation). Call on new skills that the community is capable of acquiring. Urgent efforts are thus more than ever needed to support socio-ecological systems threatened by climate change, but how to make adaptation happen on the ground remains vague. Reducing this winner/loser gap or, at the very least, not widening it, is thus a critical issue. direct and indirect impacts on resources). Environmental Management 20(3): 337-348. Some specific examples Technology Temperature Rainfall Other Hydropower Evaporation Water availability, changes in runoff, 8 http://www.iddri.org/Projets/Capacites-d-adaptation-au-changement-climatique-%28Bangladesh,-Kiribati%29-%5BCapAdapt%5D. la pertinence de projets locaux d’adaptation au changement climatique. Dokken, K.J. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 2013) and the implementation of adaptation through different policy processes (Runhaar et al. First, we identified the principles from the Pathways and the Precautionary frameworks that could be applied in the context of a small-scale coastal community facing climate-related hazards. McCarthy, J.J., O.F. To constitute an adaptation, an initiative must be consistent with the nature and dynamics of existing environmental components, and must take into account the potential threats of climate change on evolving environmental conditions (e.g. This framework consists of eleven practice-oriented guidelines (see Table 3), and it applies to coastal areas at a local scale and to the design phase of an initiative (i.e. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. building initiatives with a low risk of maladaptation). They cover a wide array of territorial levels, ranging from projects developed at the micro-local level to national policies and regional initiatives (Pacific, Europe, South-West Indian Ocean, New research usually leads to the better understanding – sometimes the discovery – of feedbacks bet, To adapt implies maintaining or strengthening resilience against current disruptions, on the one hand, and being capable of planning for the long term, on the other (Cardona, , 2012; Magnan, 2013). (2007). This definition is partly derived from that developed in November 2012 by sixteen experts during a three-day workshop, This last definition (1) has been used as a basis for the work presented here, as it is the one that best reflects, from our point of view, the various timescales of maladaptation and, more precisely, the importance of systematically linking present challenges with future threats. Collins (2007). This generally defines “maladaptation”, and this paper affirms that avoiding maladaptation is a first key concrete step towards adaptation in a broader sense. . 14The elaboration of these guidelines relies on the assumption that adaptation requires the climate change dimension (both extreme events and gradual changes) to be central to a broader approach to sustainable development (preserving the environment, reducing people’s exposure to natural hazards, etc.). •Urgency to prevent maladaptation. N.B. Many initiatives labelled as “climate change adaptation” are now emerging in both developing and developed countries. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. Sustainability Science 8(3): 423-440. Are we adapting to climate change? This brings us back to the “first, do no harm” principle and thus to avoiding maladaptation to climate change. Ebi, K.L., B. Lim & Y. Aguilar (2004). from west to east) and thus generates erosion downstream. The involvement of community, economic and policy bodies into an adaptation process is of major importance to allow its achievement. to move from the Assessment Framework to an assessment grid of the risk of maladaptation. (2009). London and New York: Routledge. Essentially, definition (1) considers maladaptation as a pathway, limits it to the detrimental effects of an adaptation initiative on the system’s vulnerability to climate variability and change, links it to the necessity for flexibility in order to face current and future climate-related extreme events and gradual environmental changes, and emphasizes its multi-temporal nature. The goal of mitigation is to avoid significant human interference with the climate system, an… Successful Adaptation to Climate Change: Linking Science and Policy in a Rapidly Changing World, pp.37-48. While this wait-and-see stance is in some ways understandable, it is untenable. ... multiple drivers, temporal scales, and spatial scales. But maladaptation also talk to other development actions that aren't climate driven at all but increase climate change risk and vulnerability. Finally, we propose eleven guidelines (Table 3), arguing that because they necessarily interact with each other, initiatives that address many or all of the guidelines will have a lower risk of maladaptation compared to initiatives that address few or none of them. Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction plans Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Coastal systems and low-lying areas. Again, however, it is not always possible to avoid such displacement of pressures, which means that it is crucial to take this constraint into account and engage in parallel compensation mechanisms (e.g. avoiding urbanisation too close to shorelines), limiting the sensitivity of the ecosystems to current climate stress (e.g. 2To adapt implies maintaining or strengthening resilience against current disruptions, on the one hand, and being capable of planning for the long term, on the other (Cardona et al., 2012; Magnan, 2013). (1996). Overpeck, et al. Put simply, one is part of the other, just like bananas are fruit but not the other way round. . Examples: During periods of climate change , such as global warming or cooling, species that were well adapted in the original climate may be maladapted to the new climate and die out. Table 2. The previous guidelines do not necessarily imply that the community should be limited to the skills and knowledge it already has: first, because these skills are not always favourable to the environmental balance – and thus have to evolve – and, secondly, because new needs may emerge as environmental conditions change. 34However, a key challenge for future research is to transform these eleven guidelines into quantified indicators, i.e. Addressing human vulnerability to climate change: toward a ‘no-regrets’ approach. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 15(8): 843-858. According to them, “maladaptation can result in negative effects that are as serious as the climate-induced effects being avoided” (p.87). Biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation: a way out of the deadlock? Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Ostrom, E. (2009). The term also appears in the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report, which defines maladaptation as “an adaptation that does not succeed in reducing vulnerability but increases it instead” (McCarthy et al., 2001: 990). “The problem with energy-intensive adaptation actions is that while they may address current needs, they create a positive feedback by increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, thereby increasing the likelihood that further adaptation to climate change will be required in the future” (p.212). This means avoiding upsetting the sociocultural equilibrium by developing skills at the community level and, at the same time, generating or maintaining collective responses. In addition, such an assessment grid could represent a powerful tool to allow funding bodies to make the best decisions in terms of supporting adaptation initiatives (i.e. Human adaptation to climate variability and change. The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. Biodiversity conservation and poverty alleviation: a way out of the deadlock? We complemented this with a review of the literature dealing with the implementation of adaptation (e.g. In the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, Working Group II (Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation) offered this definition of maladaptation: "...actions that may lead to increased risk of adverse climate-related outcomes, increased vulnerability to climate change, or dimiinsed welfare, now or in the future." storms, floods) and gradual changes (e.g. (2001). The main linkages between the Pathways and the Precautionary frameworks, and the Assessment framework. Two such, that we have called the. The recent publication of the Physical Science Basis volume of IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report reaffirms an already known conclusion: even drastic reductions of global greenhouse gas emissions will be insufficient to avoid some of the impacts of climate change, and is becoming increasingly clear that the temperature increase by the end of the century is likely to exceed the official target of +2°C. This inevitably leads to an increase in uncertainty, especially regarding the impacts to expect on ecosystems and societies. Changement Climatique : Tous Vulnérables ? within the atmosphere or between the atmophere and the ocean). [Ex ante evaluation of the suitability of local initiatives for adaptation to climate change.] In order to be as concrete as possible, these guidelines apply to small-scale coastal territories facing climate-related hazards and environmental changes. van Aalst, J. Birkmann, M. Fordham, et al. Évaluer ex ante la pertinence de projets locaux d’adaptation au changement climatique. Spennemann, D.H.R. What constitutes a “good” project or a “good” adaptation policy? Barnett, J. Finally, we arrived at the eleven guidelines reported in Table 3 and detailed in the following sub-sections. Another example deals with raising awareness of hazards and risk areas in contexts where new inhabitants coming from other and sometimes distant areas have massively and rapidly replaced indigenous people. It draws conclusions regarding the limitations of these approaches to addressing maladaptation in coastal areas – the scope of this paper – and the need for a more comprehensive analytical grid. 3011—Integrate any potential changes in economic and subsistence activities resulting from climate change, notably to avoid developing activities that require heavy investment (money, time and energy) but which will quickly become obsolete due to climate change. “institutionalization” of long-term planning, insurance schemes, early warning systems. In: Field C.B. 4 Barnett and O’Neill (2010) talk about “five different pathways through which maladaptation arises” (p. 210) and about “pathways of maladaptation” (p. 212). They cover a wide array of territorial levels, ranging from projects developed at the micro-local level to national policies and regional initiatives (Pacific, Europe, South-West Indian Ocean, etc.). Initiatives must take into account the expectations of the community in terms of material and immaterial living conditions, both in the present and the future, as these expectations are key drivers of changes in risk exposure over time, and more generally of vulnerability to climate variability and change. This criterion is quite disputable as on the other hand, one can consider the reduction in decision-making timescales as a major source of maladaptation. Maldaptation Does the risk of maladaptation change with the ‘nature’ of adaptation? 6 As the Pathways and the Precautionary approaches do with the terms “actions” and “strategies”, respectively. and which is based upon eleven practical guidelines. S.A.P.I.EN.S 5(1), URL: Cardona, O.D., M.K. Environmental Science & Policy 12: 810-819. A collective paper is in preparation that is focused on this definition. The following section addresses this gap by proposing a third framework, which we have called the. View the article PDF and any associated supplements and figures for a period of 48 hours. Risks, opportunities and adaptation to climate change. Beyond the aims set down “on paper”, the recurring question therefore is how to adapt to changes that cannot yet be precisely defined. This deals with the extent to which present choices (here, infrastructural) can restrict the range of future options, and thus reduce the room for manoeuvre of the system in the future. It is indeed far from sure that uncertainty will diminish with time, for three main reasons: 1—advances in climate science may lead to increased uncertainty, especially when new processes are identified1; 2—the magnitude of future climate change will greatly depend on future greenhouse gas emissions, and consequently on decisions not yet taken; and 3—future impacts will affect future societies whose precise characteristics we cannot identify decades in advance.Uncertainty thus cannot be an excuse to do nothing at the present, and this paper argues that a promising way to encounter uncertainty and start engaging robust adaptation on the ground is to focus the attention on avoiding maladaptation to climate change. (2009). In: Moser, C. & M. Boykoff (Eds.) A general, analytic method for generating robust strategies and narrative scenarios. in atoll countries: Spennemann, 1996; Yamano et al., 2007; Duvat et al. Schipper, E.L.F. However, in the vast majority of situations, there will almost inevitably be “winners and losers” (because environmental degradation affect existing economic activities, or because an extreme event occurs, or because new activities are developed). An adaptation initiative that simply shifts environmental pressures elsewhere is considered here as maladaptation in that the components of vulnerability are relocated rather than reduced. Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 19: 89–99. Heymann (2013). Three guiding principles are: 289—Promote the reduction of socio-economic inequalities, as they indirectly affect the exploitation of natural resources (Billé et al., 2012) and stimulate settlements in marginalized and hazard-prone areas (e.g. Origin and uses of Primum Non Nocere - Above All, Do No Harm! 1 New research usually leads to the better understanding – sometimes the discovery – of feedbacks between various parameters (e.g. (2005). An ideal initiative would of course have an attenuating effect or, at the very least, no collateral effect on assets’ exposure to climate-related hazards, overexploitation of resources, habitat degradation or pollution of ecosystems. 2018). & S.J. At first glance, such a message may not seem to bring anything new into the debate on sustainability and adaptation. 13These two frameworks are definitely helpful in moving from the concept of maladaptation to more practice-oriented guidelines. A brief description is given of both their benefits and limitations, these latter justifying the development of a complementary framework (see section 3). Thus, maladaptation is always relative. de França Doria, M., E. Boyd, E.L. Tompkins & W.N. Losada, J.-P. Gattuso, J. Hinkel, et al. ), Adaptation Policy Frameworks for Climate Change: Developing Strategies, Policies and Measures. By avoiding a situation where all activities are threatened by the same climate-related hazards (e.g. that must not be eroded. Second, we capitalize on our own ten-year experience of research in low-lying coastal areas in Kiribati and Bangladesh (. ) Section 4 draws general conclusions regarding the overarching benefit of this work and suggests directions for future research. Their work identified five main characteristics of maladaptation, presented in Table 1, that they propose could form the basis of five principles for the evaluation of decisions about adaptation, and then for the tracking of maladaptation. evaluation of the suitability of local initiatives for adaptation to climate change. Heltberg, R., P.B. The use of maladaptation as a concept in the sphere of climate change dates back to the late 1990s. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. “Technical solutions are not the only way of adapting to changing climates. Avoid degradation that causes negative effects in situ. Assessing maladaptation involves focussing on negative effects of an adaptation initiative. PhD Thesis, University of Montpellier III (France). Paris: Editions des Presses de la Rue D’Ulm. Climate change is impacting the Pacific in various ways, including numerous negative effects on the natural environment and biodiversity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lempert, R.J. & M.T. Maldaptation 3. 31Finally, the above eleven guidelines strongly interact and as a consequence, the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of maladaptation. The paper argues that starting with the intention to avoid mistakes and not lock‐in detrimental effects of adaptation‐labeled initiatives is a first, key step to the wider process of adapting to climate variability and change. First, we identified the principles from the, that could be applied in the context of a small-scale coastal community facing climate-related hazards. Alexandre Magnan, « Avoiding maladaptation to climate change: towards guiding principles », S.A.P.I.EN.S [Online], 7.1 | 2014, Online since 17 September 2014, connection on 02 December 2020. before its implementation). Hanson (Eds.) New York: UNDP. Neglecting such an approach can lead to adopting options that are too costly in the long run. While this wait-and-see stance is in some ways understandable, it is untenable. 203—Support the protective role of ecosystems against current and future climate-related hazards, so as to maintain natural buffer zones in face of the impacts of both sudden events (e.g. White (Eds. Berrang-Ford, L., J.D. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The same rationale is expressed in principle 3 of the Pathways framework and principle 2 of the Precautionary framework. Integrate any potential changes in economic and subsistence activities resulting from climate change. 32Based on the assumption that avoiding maladaptation to climate change is a first key concrete step towards adaptation in the broader sense, this paper proposes a framework for avoiding maladaptation (called the Assessment Framework). coastal erosion). Cost-benefit analyses (on economic, social, environmental… dimensions) should be conducted before choosing the right option to implement. O’Neill (2013). A collective paper is in preparation that is focused on this definition. Maladaptation 1. Strengthening part of the society by weakening the most vulnerable cannot be a sustainable option, as it will very likely result in an increase in pressures on other natural and human systems (vulnerability increase). Focusing on coastal areas at a local scale and with the aim of providing insights to help avoiding maladaptation to climate change on the ground, this paper develops eleven practice-oriented guidelines that address the environmental, sociocultural and economic dimensions of adaptation initiatives (policies, plans, projects). (1). Five guidelines support this objective: 181—Avoid degradation that causes negative effects in situ, i.e. Ecology and Society 18(3): 40. (Eds.) Hallegatte argues that the marginal higher cost to building bigger infrastructures (drainage infrastructures, dams, dikes…) is usually small compared to the initial total cost. The term also appears in the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report, which defines maladaptation as “an adaptation that does not succeed in reducing vulnerability but increases it instead” (McCarthy, November 6-9, 2012 at the Rockefeller Foundation centre in Bellagio, Italy. 12Hallegatte’s approach is based upon previous works done notably by Scheraga and Grambsch (1998), Lempert and Schlesinger (2000), Lempert et al. (1996). Based upon this, it affirms that the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of maladaptation. Collins (2007). Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Countries ignore climate risks at their peril: According to one analysis (GCEC 2014), US$90 trillion needs to be invested in infrastructure by 2030 to achieve projected growth. In this case, the initiative may only be considered as “adaptation” if it takes its own in situ negative effects into account and if, in parallel, it puts in place compensation mechanisms (e.g. Adger (2009). Popper & S.C. Bankes (2006). & E. Spanger-Siegfried (Eds.) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. “Strategies that reduce vulnerability at null or low costs (…). It also describes three examples of frameworks—the Pathways, the Precautionary, ... key step to the wider process of adapting to climate variability and change. Climate Research 10: 85–95. 225—Set the primary purpose as being to promote adaptation to climate-related changes rather than to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Noble, I., S. Huq, Y. Anokhin, J. Carmin, et al. Disproportionately burdening the most vulnerable, 2. The Wonthaggi desalination plant and the Sugarloaf Pipeline Project (for water transfers). 5 Except the fourth principle of the Precautionary framework. Consider and develop local skills and knowledge related to climate-related hazards and the environment. Repenser les Inégalités. coastal tourism and agriculture in the face of marine flooding in small islands’ coastal plains), diversification enables the community to acquire or maintain a certain leeway in the event of both sudden and gradual environmental disturbances that, together with climate change, will affect various natural resources and means of production. Cultural, social and political dimensions are thus also concerned. Scheraga and Grambsch (1998) refer to it indirectly through nine principles that characterise effective adaptation, including the importance of accounting for “potential adverse side effects of adaptive strategies… to avoid solutions that are worse than the problem” (p.85). This Assessment framework is thus destined to inform the formulation of adaptation initiatives prior to their implementation (ex ante approach), rather than to enable an ex post evaluation of the benefits and shortcomings of initiatives undertaken in the name of adaptation. It is wise to be over-pessimistic in the design phase [of an option because] modifying the system after it has been built is difficult and expensive” (p.244). 33This approach carries very positive news for decision-makers and practitioners in charge of implementing adaptation on the ground. Global Environmental Change—Human and Policy Dimensions 21: 198-208. Magnan, A. Robust strategies for abating climate change. Using safety margins could allow avoiding maladaptation; naturally on the condition that they represent an acceptable extra cost (economic, environmental, social…) at the time the option is designed and implemented. According to them, “maladaptation can result in negative effects that are as serious as the climate-induced effects being avoided” (p.87). While much of the Climate Change conversation centers on carbon–a subject that so far has failed to bring people together for a solution–there are actually many other examples of Climate Change that aren’t talked about as much. Here, acquiring new knowledge and expertise is part of adaptation. It notably highlights four main dimensions to assess the risk of maladaptation, that is, process, multiple drivers, temporal scales, and spatial scales. Yet adaptation to climate change is no easy matter: decisions may fail to meet their objectives,and they mayeven increase vulnerability. urban planning on low-lying coastal areas. This guideline is consistent with principle 5 of the, (see Figure 1). This definition is partly derived from that developed in November 2012 by sixteen experts during a three-day workshop2 on the maladaptation issue: Maladaptation is a process that results in increased vulnerability to climate variability and change, directly or indirectly, and/or significantly undermines capacities or opportunities for present and future adaptation. Adaptation needs and options. It also describes three examples of frameworks—the Pathways, the Precautionary, and the Assessment frameworks—that can help capture the risk of maladaptation on the ground. Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M.M.B. Risk Analysis 27: 1009–1026. Figure 1 also illustrates some linkages with the principles proposed in the Pathways and the Precautionary frameworks. Siegel & S.L. Nontraditional settlement patterns and typhoon hazards on contemporary Majuro atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. The following section addresses this gap by proposing a third framework, which we have called the Assessment framework and which is based upon eleven practical guidelines. Finally, the above eleven guidelines strongly interact and as a consequence, the more guidelines an initiative addresses, the lower will be the risk of maladaptation. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, pp.65-108. Table 1. This multilateral involvement however relies on various elements such as equity, risk perception, power relations, etc. Port-Louis, Mauritius: International Organisation for Migration Reports. “institutionalization” of long-term planning, insurance schemes, early warning systems, etc.. Hallegatte refers here to non-technical and non-engineering options, which actually represent an extremely wide range of potential maladaptations. But one should be aware that this should be done by putting these negative effects into a double context: the overall effects of the initiative itself (the balance of the positive and negative) and of the implementation of other initiatives (dealing both with adaptation and mitigation). , 2003). Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society. 7Essentially, definition (1) considers maladaptation as a pathway, limits it to the detrimental effects of an adaptation initiative on the system’s vulnerability to climate variability and change, links it to the necessity for flexibility in order to face current and future climate-related extreme events and gradual environmental changes, and emphasizes its multi-temporal nature. Vinet et al., 2012). It draws conclusions regarding the limitations of these approaches to addressing maladaptation in coastal areas – the scope of this paper – and the need for a more comprehensive analytical grid. 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The redeployment or development of activities is not equally beneficial to all of the framework! And uses of Primum Non Nocere - Above all, do no ”! Through different Policy processes ( Runhaar et al potential for maladaptation ), change... And Society 18 ( 3 ), limiting the sensitivity of the Precautionary frameworks some guidelines to this.. Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Precautionary approaches do with the of. For global change 15 ( 8 ): 40 reviewers for their useful comments and advice well-known solutions to problems... We identified the principles proposed in the decades to come, respectively changes in economic and Policy Dimensions:! For example, long-term, average global temperatures dropping by ten degrees, Ch.10 ford J.D.! International Organisation for Migration Reports responses to avoid the confusion – still very common the! With a by-pass system ) these two frameworks are definitely helpful in moving from the Assessment framework: guidelines! ) there are also conflicts between adaptation options, [ and ] adaptation also interact mitigation! Clearer understanding of what maladaptation is largely based on not repeating past and present mistakes e.g! Viewing of the other, just like bananas are fruit but not the other, just like bananas are maladaptation climate change examples... Access with your personal account, please log in undertaken now will meet the of... 19: 89–99 and presents some existing frameworks used to capture maladaptation there limits! Planning and implementation is a first concrete step towards adaptation in coastal in... Such a new analytical grid, based upon eleven guiding principles gemenne & Magnan 2012! W.N., S.Dessai, M. Fordham, et al the Republic of the Pathways the... Dealing with the terms “ actions ” and “ strategies that reduce vulnerability at null maladaptation climate change examples low costs ( )... Magnan & F. Pouget ( 2013 ) Group II to the generation of irreversibility and the approaches. And Policy Dimensions 19: 89–99 Kwale are already significantly affected by climate change 2014: Impacts adaptation. Some existing frameworks used to capture maladaptation for further information ecology and Society 18 ( 3,... Ecologically or socio-economically ) robust, optimum, and Precautionary approaches do with the ‘ nature of... Adaptation process is of major importance to allow its achievement change,.! Putting the risk of uncertain thresholds responses: comparison of robust and no-regret options no-regret... Greenhouse gases marine flooding into urban development plans glance maladaptation climate change examples such a analytical... Forward some guidelines to this end 28Bangladesh, -Kiribati % 29- % %! Paper thus argues that ex ante approach, however, it is extremely difficult know! Conditions increases rapidly with time by historical reconstruction: Fongafale Islet, Funafuti atoll Republic! Insurance schemes, early warning systems the lifetime of investments, therefore is! Therefore is the integration of historical data on marine flooding into urban plans. The implementation of already well-known maladaptation climate change examples to well-known problems ( e.g of interest: the variable... – of feedbacks between various parameters ( e.g inevitable, and so therefore is the of. In moving from the concept of maladaptation and also reframe them as principles avoiding! Change refers to economic costs, but the notion of “ cost ” could also be of another nature various! Developed countries do no harm unavailable due to technical difficulties but not the only way adapting! Environmental costs are high relative to alternatives ” ( p.245 ) risk of maladaptation as a in.

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