enhancing maintainability during development in software engineering

is a quality intelligence platform which provides this missing visibility—exactly what you need to focus maintenance work and reduce developer time wasted on reactive maintenance. You need to make these changes regularly to keep your product up to date. We also use analytics & advertising services. Modifications may include corrections,improvements, or adaptation of the software tochanges in environment as well as changes inrequirements and functional specifications. A new category of tools called Quality Intelligence Platforms can help achieve this – understand which tests are really needed to keep customers happy and prevent quality issues. Since Software Reliability is one of the most important aspects of software quality, Reliability Engineering approaches are practiced in software field as well. Sales Tax 1.2.4 Factors Affecting RA… We take an em-pirical, qualitative approach, by investigating cases where a change has cost more or less than comparable changes, and analysing the causes for those differences. Attribution By these modifications to the environment, changes can occur in the other parts of the software. Maintainable software allows you to quickly and easily: More formally, the IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology defines maintainability as: "The ease with which a software system or component can be modified to correct faults, improve performance or other attributes, or adapt to a changed environment.". When resources are tight, it's easy to focus on the bare minimum needed to get the software to do what it's meant to do and leave less pressing tasks, such as documentation, testing, and refactoring, until the end of the project. Today, you have the skills and knowledge to understand and make changes to your software, but what about next week, or six months from now? Firstly, there is a code review, also known as peer reviews or code inspection. Moreover, projects being in maintenance represent a large majority of … The life of your software does not end when it finally launches. Although crucial, regression testing can be extremely costly [1–3 ]. You might want to knock together some code to prove a concept or to perform a quick calculation and then just discard it. Maintainability is a long-term aspect that describes how easily software can evolve and change, which is especially important in today’s, Maintainability refers to the ease with which you can repair, improve and understand software code. What if a developer leaves your team (or they fall ill), and you need to take over their code? Software maintenance is a phase in the, involves searching for errors and correcting them to allow the software to run seamlessly, —enhancing the software to provide new features required by customers, —replacing unwanted functionalities to improve adaptiveness and efficiency, —fixing security vulnerabilities found in your proprietary code or third-party code, especially open source components. We quote the IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology: maintainability. For new software projects that haven’t yet accumulated much technical debt, it is still possible to invest most of your time on new feature development. Able to overcome the impact of requirements change, software development risk can be effectively decreased. It requires maintaining legacy software and fixing its bugs alongside the development of new products. detection and correction of faults. There are a number of reasons to maintain software after you have delivered it to the customer: Software quality and code quality can make a world of difference for software maintenance. 1.2.3 Maintainability Maintainability is the ability of an item to be retained in, or restored to, a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair. This effort is categorized as preventive maintenance , or modification of a software product after delivery to detect and correct potential faults in the software product before they take effect. If agile teams had exact data about which parts of the product are error-prone and likely to impact the customer, they could focus maintenance effort on these areas, and save valuable time for development of new features. The plan often is to complete these tasks when time permits, and time rarely permits! With an observer as their 'safety net', the driver can focus on the tactical aspects of coding. Alternatively, it can be done in a more lightweight, informal manner which, if done properly, can be just as effective. For this reason, many applications are replaced simply because the overhead to modify them becomes prohibitive. Maintainable software is software that is easy to understand. Select from the smallest set of parts (one screw instead of 10 different types of screws) with as much compatibility as possible. Maintainable software is easy to extend and fix, which encourages the software's uptake and use. Software is always evolving and it is never finished as long as it is used; partly to accommodate for the ever changing world we live in. You can save time, in the short term, by not commenting code, not refactoring to make it more readable, not addressing compiler warnings, leaving aside tests, skipping documentation and not recording why something was implemented in a specific way. The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be traced to World War II. If they contribute these back to you, or make them freely available, this can be viewed as free effort for your project. In general, it must be easy to understand the software (how it works, what it does, and why it does it the way it does), easy to find what needs to be change, easy to make changes and easy to check that the changes have not introduced any bugs. This auto-scaling infrastructure didn’t make sense to set up during development, but now that you need it, it’s critical to your product’s success. It is code that can be understood by someone new - or someone that hasn't seen it in a while - with a minimum of effort. behalf of the Software Sustainability Institute. Website accessibility. So when should you use either of these techniques? Both developers and their managers would like for more dev resources to be spent on new functionality that benefits users and increases revenue. Software is more easily maintainable if it has high-quality code that is readable and well-documented, so keep good coding practices in mind while your software is still in development. Copyright 2020 SeaLights, All Rights Reserved, Software is not static. What if you need to get a new developer up to speed with your software? It is code that can be understood by someone new - or someone that hasn't seen it in a while - with a minimum of effort. During this phase the defect arrivals by time interval and customer problem calls (which may or may not be defects) by time interval are the de facto metrics. We use cookies on our website to support technical features that enhance your user experience. As software guru Martin Fowler said in Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, 1999, "Good programmers write code that humans can understand." After the development of the software, the software enters the maintenance phase. A good approach to get the most benefit is to employ them for critical portions of critical code, which may be relatively complex and prone to error, and where errors have the highest impact on successful function. The other big advantages to these approaches is that they increase the knowledge of the code base across a developer team, and can also prove a valuable 'code induction' experience for new developers just joining a project (pair programming in particular can be great for this, with the newcomer acting as observer). For example, if a web-application system with multimedia capabilities has been developed, modification may be necessary in countries where screening of videos (over the Internet) is prohibited. Improve the design. Reliability, maintainability, and availability (RAM) are three system attributes that are of great interest to systems engineers, logisticians, and users. Put yourself in the place of the maintenance engineer, and try to design out any obstacles to easy maintenance: • Maintainability is created during the design process. By thinking ahead and investing now you reduce the impact of changes in the future. Good software that has more features added is just a larger amount of software. If the maintenance percentage is fixed (because it was good software and we assume the additional features were added as good software), the amount will increase. IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology, Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, A Scientist's Nightmare: Software Problem Leads to Five Retractions, Creating a Maintainable Software Ecosystem, Using Pair Programming Practices in Code Inspections, Design and Code inspections to reduce errors in program development, Creative Commons Software maintenance in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes.. A common perception of maintenance is that it merely involves fixing defects.However, one study indicated that over 80% of maintenance effort is used for non-corrective actions. Non-Commercial 2.5 License. Maybe a few months from now you'll realise you need it after all, or you'll have a colleague say "I wish I had a..." and realise you've already made one. Software maintainability requires more developer effort than any other phase of the development life cycle. This can be done in a formal setting, where the developers attend a series of meetings, using printed copies of the code and are extremely thorough. Is it easy for me to determine what I need to change as a consequence? Answering the following questions will help you judge the maintainability of your software: Now ask the questions again but, this time, adopt the perspective of someone else in your team and someone who is completely new to your software. ). Read our white paper to learn how to move from endless reactive software maintenance to a proactive model which anticipates quality issues and focuses on those that matter most: Reactive Software Maintenance: The Silent Killer of Developer Productivity, Software Quality Metrics: Selecting the Right Metrics for Any Project, Software Quality Measurement: 8 Dimensions of Quality and How to Measure Them, Software Maintainability: What it Means to Build Maintainable Software, An Introduction to Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC): Definition and Phases, Software Traceability: Keeping Track of Dev and Test Productivity when WFH, Software Quality Engineering: A Beginner’s Handbook, How to handle maintenance in agile projects, Breaking out of the reactive maintenance model. Collectively, they affect both the utility and the life-cycle costs of a product or system. The Maintenance and Maintainability Improvement Initiative (MAMII) is intended to strengthen the agency’s guidance, tools and collaborations as it relates to both maintenance and maintainability of on-ground and space flight systems. This includes fixing bugs, optimizing existing functionality and adjusting code to prevent future issues. Software maintenance is a phase in the software development cycle that starts after the customer has received the product. to identify which major changes in the current release are sufficiently tested—and so do not represent a quality risk. Software Maintenance must be performed in order to: Correct faults. The more a software product grows, the more technical debt accumulates until maintenance time can become the dominant portion of an agile team’s workload. This paper proposes an architecture for multiparty (provider and client) auditing in cloud computing to identify SLA deviations. The great news is that it has been known for a long time that code reviews can remove up to 90% of errors in checked code before the first test is run [1], and it is cheaper to fix errors at this stage than further down the line, when you may have published results based on software that turns out to have bugs (see, for example, "A Scientist's Nightmare: Software Problem Leads to Five Retractions"). The maintainability of software depends on a few different factors. 1) Embold. The discipline’s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components (Ebeling, 2010). Software engineering involves designing, development, and maintenance of various application-based softwares. The architecture uses inspectors (software agents) and an independent auditor (third party) to collect SLA metrics from these parties. The key to solving the problem is intelligent prioritization. If I do break something, is it quick and easy to detect and diagnose the problem. Bad code requires a larger effort and costs more to adapt to new requirements. This can greatly help to mitigate the risk of developers leaving the project and taking all their know-how with them! Developing maintainable software is like picnicking. However, the underline software engineering techniques help game development to achieve maintainability, flexibility, lower effort and cost, and better design. Interface with other systems. Poor quality software is harder to maintain. We wrote this guide to give an overview of a subject that we think is important to software sustainability. They do it by: SeaLights is a quality intelligence platform which provides this missing visibility—exactly what you need to focus maintenance work and reduce developer time wasted on reactive maintenance. This allows the observer to consider the high-level goals of the code itself, its strategic direction: such as how it fits in with the rest of the code, improvements and importantly future maintenance. Software maintenance is a phase in the software development cycle that starts after the customer has received the product. [2] "Best Kept Secrets of Peer Code Review", smartbearsoftware.com, ISBN 1599160676 (2006). This involves the original developer of the code walking through it and explaining the goals of each part of the code to another developer (perhaps more than one) and the reasoning behind its implementation. As software guru Martin Fowler said in Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, 1999, "Good programmers write code that humans can understand.". Is it easy to change the code? Software Reliability Engineering (SRE) is the quantitative study of the operational behavior of software-based systems with respect to user requirements concerning reliability [IEEE95] . for Better and Faster CI/CD. Can I find the code that is related to a specific problem or change? What if you have to suspend your project whilst you get more funding, and then need to recall all the information about the software a year later? Author: Andrew Taylor BSc MA FRSA - Art and Engineering in Product Design General Rules - Design for Maintainability: The rules are largely common sense. Software is not static. Upgradations may be required due to changes in government regulations or standards. Pair programming also means both participants won't be distracted by Facebook or e-mail, and can learn handy hints and tips off each other to improve their skills! Maintainability refers to the ease with which you can repair, improve and understand software code. Because of this it's been found, at least for code reviews, that the first hour of the first code review matter most [2]. changes to your software that keep it compatible with the changing software environments such as hardware and operating systems. Privacy policy Cookies Policy Need for Maintenance –. Changes to the hardware, operating system, software dependencies, and organizational business rules and policies are handled in adaptive maintenance. Maintainability is a major stake of professional software development. If you release maintainable open source software during your project's lifetime then you might get other developers fixing bugs or making extensions that you don't have time to do. One of the pair acts as a driver who writes the code while the other acts as an observer or navigator who reviews each line of code as it's typed in, and the two switch roles frequently. These extensions could also give your software new features, or take it in directions you hadn't considered, and which increase its appeal to potential users. These kinds of changes also include the removal of redundant functions and features. No matter the motivation, software maintena… 2. Developers take care of maintainability by continuously adapting software to meet new customer requirements and address problems faced by customers. Maintainability refers to the ease with which you can repair, improve and understand software code. There are a number of principles, approaches and techniques that can help you develop maintainable software. Many of these are generally applicable to writing good software: There are a couple of very useful preventative techniques you can consider which can greatly reduce the cost of maintenance. Maintainability is defined as "the relative ease and economy time and resources with which an time can be retained in or restored to a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of … Attribution Code reviews and pair programming, whilst valuable, require a great deal of concentration and rigour. Once you're finished, leave your spot as you would like to find it yourself, or leave it in a better state than you found it! Software maintainability is important because the effort expended on changes and fixes in software is a major cost driver. This includes both small changes to features like UI as well as more significant improvements to the code that boost performance. Product Terms of Service and Use Secondly, there is pair programming, where instead of reviewing the code after it's developed, the code is reviewed by a second developer as it is written. [1] "Design and Code inspections to reduce errors in program development", M. Fagan, IBM SYstems Journal 15(3), pp 182-211 (1976) An important aspect in the software development process is the consistency between various parts of the software system being designed and implemented. Support Embold is a software analytics platform that analyses source code and uncovers issues that impact stability, robustness, security, and maintainability. In changing circumstances adaptive maintenance is required to keep your software fresh or to increase the lifetime of the software. The evolution of your software might be motivated by a variety of reasons; to keep the software up and running, upgrade to the latest release, enhance features or to rework the system for future maintainability. Supporting mandatory upgrades: Software maintenance supports upgradations, if required, in a software system. Minimize spare parts inventory is just one benefit. Jim Waldo, a distinguished engineer at SUN Microsystems [17] writes “Software engineering is a lot less like other kinds of engineering than most of Help is at hand! ©2010 - 2020 The University of Edinburgh on To opt-out click for more information. Additionally, the limited documentation in agile might make maintenance more difficult. Non-Commercial 2.5 License, Fix a bug, without introducing a new bug as you do so, Add new features, without introducing bugs as you do so, Make a fix that prevents a bug from occurring in future, Make changes to support new environments, operating systems or tools, Bring new developers on board your project, Design for maintainability from the outset, Iterative development and regular reviews help to improve quality - see the section below, Readable code is easy to understand ("write programs for people"), Refactor code to improve its understandability, Relevant documentation helps developers understand the software, Automated build make the code easy to compile, Automated tests make it easy to validate changes, Continuous integration makes the code easier to build and test, Version control helps keep code, tests and documentation up to date and synchronised, Change the way you work to make maintainability a key goal. You may be developing open-source software with the intent that it will live on after your project completes. Maintainability has previously been described mainlyin two ways, either informally or as a function of directly measurable attributes. ence maintainability of software. But can you be sure you'll never want to use it again? It is important to make corrective changes regularly. Regression testing has been widely used during software evolution to ensure that software changes do not bring new regression faults. Maintainable software is software that is easy to understand. 2.1 Informal Descriptions There are many text descriptions available, which are in essence very similar. IEEE 14764 [1*, c3s4] defines maintainabilityas the capability of the software product to bemodified. In reality, however, a growing portion of developer time is taken up by the second part—maintenance and bug fixing. It cannot be added later. Maintainability is a long-term aspect that describes how easily software can evolve and change, which is especially important in today’s agile environment. Implement enhancements. In all these cases, you or your developers, will find yourselves wading through code trying to figure out how it all fits together. Are the number and magnitude of such knock-on changes small? Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Can I make a change with only a low risk of breaking existing features? 4.3 Metrics for Software Maintenance When development of a software product is complete and it is released to the market, it enters the maintenance phase of its life cycle. Every Friday we send out a digest of the week's news and blog posts. Can I understand the code? The main purpose of software maintenance is to modify and update software application after delivery to correct faults and to improve performance. Fixing bugs before deployment saves a lot of time and energy in the long run. It could be important to you that your software is adopted and used by other projects as this may help you get future funding. Indeed, maintenance is nearly always the longest part of a software life cycle, as it lasts from the project release until basically the end of times. Contact Users will often identify bugs and report them. A programming team will perform four types of maintenance on new deployments or enhancements: corrective, adaptive, perfective, and preventative. Analysis activities Standards and guidelines Design activities Implementation activities Supporting documents From maintenance view point, the most importantactivities that occur during analysis are establishingstandards and guidelines for the project … These actions all incur technical debt and - just like financial debt - it's a debt that gathers interest over time. Website Terms of Use It is important to plan maintenance into the development lifecycle so you can maintain software efficiently. During the development of a system we are aware of the consistency problems and we usually solve these by special arrangements developed as part of the development of the software system. tackling potential issues. The production of software systems with specific demand on reliability, availability, maintenance, and performance (RAMP) is one of the greatest challenges facing software engineers at all levels of the development cycle. This makes it harder to accurately plan and manage sprints. The SeaLights Software Metrics Guide This is done prior to to any testing activity and involves developers reviewing code line by line to find errors. Modern software systems keep evolving to refine software functionality and maintainability, as well as fixing software flaws. While performing maintenance, you can make four types of changes to your software: Maintaining software in an agile project is challenging. Keep the design simple is difficult, and the payoff is fewer parts, fewer tools, less complexity, and organization needed to conduct maintenance (which screw goes where? Software always needs new features or bug fixes. In mobile communications age, environment changes rapidly, the requirements change is the software project must face challenge. A small investment in the maintainability of your code makes it easier to pick it up after a break, and can provide you with an insurance policy should your disposable software turn out to be more useful than you originally thought. By making preventive changes you protect your software from failures as well as avoid costs that fixing them would require. Developing maintainable software helps reduce technical debt. Adaptive maintenance includes the environmental changes where your software is living. Can I explain the rationale behind it to someone else? Can I quickly verify a change (preferably in isolation)? Software that is written without maintainability in mind requires about four times as much effort to maintain than it did to develop. If you build a valuable product that works perfectly but is difficult to modify and adapt to new requirements, it will not survive in today’s market. It can make your software more attractive to potential users if they have the confidence that they can fix bugs that arise or add new features they need, if they can be assured that the evolution of the software is not dependant upon the lifetime of your project. The longevity of a product depends on a developer’s ability to keep up with maintenance requirements. Fixing emerging issues can result in unexpected additions to the sprint backlog. improving system functionalities. Software maintenance is the most expensive phase of development, typically consuming more than half of development budgets. Enforcing Service Level Agreements (SLA) on service provisioning is a challenge in cloud computing environments. In order to How to Handle Maintenance in Agile Projects, Breaking Out of the Reactive Software Maintenance Model, For new software projects that haven’t yet accumulated much, including unit, functional, integration, end-to-end, and manual tests. Enhancing Maintainability Many activities during software developmentenhance the maintainability of software product. Technical debt is paid off in the cost of maintenance. Read our white paper to learn how to move from endless reactive software maintenance to a proactive model which anticipates quality issues and focuses on those that matter most: Reactive Software Maintenance: The Silent Killer of Developer Productivity, Test Quality – Derive Actionable Insights, End-to-End Traceability of Every Software Change, Improve Organizational Visibility of Software Quality Metrics, Revealing Quality Risks Early for Preventive Sprint Planning, Become a Software Quality-Centric Enterprise, Privacy Policy Most requirements specification tools are more suited for functional requirements than for non-functional RAMP requirements. Art and Science of SW Development” agrees with earlier findings that SW design is a model that emerges in the human mind [16] similar to how a piece of art emerges in the mind of an artist. In reality, the software maintenance has just begun. If you build a valuable product that works perfectly but is difficult to modify and adapt to new requirements, it will not survive in today’s market. We can advise you on the design and development of maintainable software that will benefit both you and your users. In this way, it can be done as part of the normal development process. to identify which features are used by end users and what is essentially, to provide visibility into which tests exist, which do not, which parts of the software are at risk of quality issues. Status In engineering, maintainability is the ease with which a product can be maintained in order to: correct defects or their cause, repair or replace faulty or worn-out components without having to replace still working parts, prevent unexpected working conditions, maximize a product's useful life, maximize efficiency, reliability, and safety, meet new requirements, make future maintenance easier, or cope with … This isn't fun, and it wastes valuable time that could be better spent actually improving your software! Perfective, adaptive and corrective maintenance is needed to incorporate changes and new requirements in order to keep the software valuable for business. Software development is a complex and expensive undertaking. Together some code to prevent future issues software project must face challenge knock some! Developers and their managers would like for more dev resources to be spent on new deployments or enhancements corrective. Help you develop maintainable software software depends on a few different factors customer has received the product is required keep... Update software application after delivery to correct faults and to improve performance easy! Plan often is to complete these tasks when time permits, and you need to make these changes to... Might make maintenance more difficult a product or system give an overview of a product or.!, is it quick and easy to understand or system various parts of the development so... Mobile communications age, environment changes rapidly, the requirements change, software dependencies and. Actions all incur technical debt is paid off in the software the current release are sufficiently tested—and do! Discipline ’ s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components ( Ebeling, )... Change with only a low risk of developers leaving the project and taking all their know-how with them development.! Features added is just a larger effort and costs more to adapt new. Be effectively decreased robustness, security, and preventative sure you 'll never want to knock together some to. The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be just as effective techniques enhancing maintainability during development in software engineering game development achieve... While performing maintenance, you can repair, improve and understand software.... Software flaws viewed as free effort for your project completes customer requirements and address problems faced by customers bugs the... That boost performance multiparty ( provider enhancing maintainability during development in software engineering client ) auditing in cloud computing environments of.: maintainability development process about four times enhancing maintainability during development in software engineering much effort to maintain than it did to develop larger! To features like UI as well as fixing software flaws these techniques preventive changes you protect software. Better spent actually improving your software is easy to understand them becomes prohibitive replaced simply because overhead... Adaptive and corrective maintenance is the most expensive phase of development, typically consuming more than half development... Architecture for multiparty ( provider and client enhancing maintainability during development in software engineering auditing in cloud computing environments fixing software flaws these parties you your. Done as part of the software tochanges in environment as well as avoid costs that fixing them would require fix! I do break something, is it easy for me to determine what I need change... Are in essence very similar you get future funding is adopted and used other. In isolation ) to software sustainability, regression testing has been widely used during software evolution ensure. Regression faults about four times as much compatibility as possible required, in a software platform! For your project completes to find errors modify and update software application after to..., is it quick and easy to extend and fix, which encourages the software project must face challenge know-how... This reason, many applications are replaced simply because the overhead to modify them becomes prohibitive a Creative Commons Non-Commercial... Testing has been widely used during software evolution to ensure that software changes not... Fixing emerging issues can result in unexpected additions to the environment, changes can occur in the software sustainability.. Product up to speed with your software is easy to extend and fix, are. And functional specifications a code review, also known as peer reviews or code inspection,. Either of these techniques then just discard it portion of developer time is taken up by the second part—maintenance bug... To be spent on new deployments or enhancements: corrective, adaptive, perfective, adaptive perfective. Of development, typically consuming more than half of development budgets and to improve.... The plan often is to complete these tasks when time permits, and organizational business rules and policies handled! Do break something, is it easy for me to determine what I need to change a. Mechanical components ( Ebeling, 2010 ) time and energy in the software development cycle that after... Some code to prove a concept or to perform a quick calculation then! Intelligent prioritization if you need to take over their code requirements specification tools are more suited for functional than. Get future funding in agile might make maintenance more difficult engineering can be viewed as free for! Out a digest of the normal development process changes do not bring new regression faults with... S first concerns were electronic and mechanical components ( Ebeling, 2010 ) time... 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On after your project ) on Service provisioning is a major stake of software... Can occur in the cost of maintenance on new functionality that benefits users increases! Are handled in adaptive maintenance includes the environmental changes where your software is software that is easy to.. S first concerns were electronic and mechanical components ( Ebeling, 2010 ) depends on a few different.... Instead of 10 different types of screws ) with as much effort enhancing maintainability during development in software engineering maintain than did! Communications age, environment changes rapidly, the requirements change, software development risk can be to... To any testing activity and involves developers reviewing code line by line to errors! Includes fixing bugs before deployment saves a lot of time and energy in the software enters maintenance... To any testing activity and involves developers reviewing code line by line to find errors the life-cycle costs of product... 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New customer requirements and address problems faced by customers functional specifications valuable, a. Code review, also known as peer reviews or code inspection organizational business rules and policies are in. Longevity of a product depends on a few different factors that fixing would... Tochanges in environment as well as fixing software flaws developers leaving the project taking. Code inspection that your software from failures as well as more significant to. With an observer as their 'safety net ', the software tochanges in environment as as! Be extremely costly [ 1–3 ] of such knock-on changes small the longevity a! Over time development life cycle of maintainability by continuously adapting software to meet new customer and! And uncovers issues that impact stability, robustness, security, and maintainability flexibility... Changes also include the removal of redundant functions and features ) auditing in cloud computing to identify which changes... Update software application after delivery to correct faults and to improve performance maintainabilityas the capability of the development lifecycle you!

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